HomeLifestyleHow do blood pressure and diabetes damage the liver and kidneys?

How do blood pressure and diabetes damage the liver and kidneys?

When the pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the arteries becomes higher than normal, it is called hypertension. The higher the blood pressure, the higher the risk of strokeHeart disease, kidney and liver problems. Hypertension can develop from environmental, genetic, renal, vascular or endocrine causes.

Diabetes is a chronic multifactorial disease High blood sugar levels occur due to a complete or partial lack of insulin that affects the nerves and blood vessels of the body. Uncontrolled sugar can adversely affect the blood vessels of all organs, especially the heart, brain, kidneys, liver and eyes.

Diabetes and hypertension are closely associated with similar risk factors such as vascular dysfunction and inflammation, arterial remodeling, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia and obesity.

Common mechanisms that contribute to the close association between diabetes and hypertension are due to blood pressure maintenance mechanisms, oxidative stress, inflammation and immune system activation.

how does kidney damage

Persistent uncontrolled high blood pressure can cause the arteries that supply the kidneys to narrow, weaken, and harden. These damaged arteries are then unable to deliver enough blood to the tissue, causing damage to the kidneys. Damaged kidneys cannot filter impurities from the blood, resulting in loss of proteins and salts from the kidneys.

Similar mechanisms are observed in diabetes. A high blood sugar level blocks blood vessels and makes them narrow and leaky.

Diabetes damages the nerves of the bladder, causing a loss of feeling of fullness leading to urinary retention and increased pressure on the kidneys. It also increases the risk of recurrent urinary infections (UTIs). These factors gradually and progressively damage the kidneys.

Why is the liver stretched

High blood pressure is a potential risk factor for liver injury and liver fibrosis. High liver enzymes are seen in hypertension, especially ALT and GGT. High levels of fat in your liver (fatty liver) are also associated with an increased risk of diabetes, high blood pressure and kidney disease. The portal vein supplies blood to the liver. Over time, high blood pressure causes the collateral blood vessels to enlarge. These act as channels to divert blood under high pressure. The extra pressure in these vessels causes them to expand and stretch. A diseased liver causes portal hypertension and leads to cirrhosis. There is a bidirectional relationship between hypertension and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD causes hypertension by a systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, vasoconstriction and gut dysbiosis.

The liver serves as the body’s glucose storehouse. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia are the pathophysiological basis of diabetes in liver disease. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and hemochromatosis are more frequently associated with diabetes. Fatty liver turns into cirrhosis due to insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress.



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