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High blood sugar during pregnancy? Study says women can still prevent type 2 diabetes if they do

Washington (US): According to a study, women with a history of diabetes during pregnancy can reduce their chances of developing type 2 diabetes by adopting a healthy lifestyle, such as eating well, quitting smoking, exercising frequently and not being overweight. can do. The results showed that women who followed five key lifestyle factors – a healthy weight, high-quality diet, regular physical activity, moderate alcohol intake, and not smoking – had a 90% lower risk of the disorder than women who did not. She did not follow it. None, even in people who were overweight or obese, or at a greater genetic risk of type 2 diabetes.

It is widely known that a healthy lifestyle is associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes in a generally healthy middle-aged population. But little is known about whether this also applies to high-risk women with a history of diabetes in pregnancy (gestational diabetes), and if obesity status or genetic risk of type 2 diabetes influences this relationship. .

To fill in these research gaps, the researchers evaluated the relationship of adherence to optimal levels of five modifiable risk factors — healthy body mass index, high-quality diet, regular physical activity, moderate alcohol consumption, and no smoking, to the developing type. These women are at high risk with the risk of type 2 diabetes. Their findings are based on data from 4,275 women with a history of gestational diabetes from the Nurses’ Health Study II with repeated measurements of weight and lifestyle factors over 28 years of follow-up. The researchers also assessed whether these relationships changed according to obesity status or underlying genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes.

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Over an average of 28 years of follow-up, 924 women developed type 2 diabetes. Taking other major diabetes risk factors into account, the researchers found that participants who had optimal levels of all five modifiable factors after the index pregnancy had a more than 90% lower risk for developing type 2 diabetes than those who did not. was not. Each additional optimal modifiable factor was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. For example, women had 6%, 39%, 68%, 85%, and 92% lower risk, respectively, compared with one, two, three, four, and five optimal levels of modifiable factors. And these beneficial associations were seen consistently, even among women who were overweight or obese or who had a high genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes. This is an observational study, so it cannot establish causation, and the researchers acknowledge that the data relied on individual reports, which may have affected accuracy.

What’s more, the study primarily included health care professionals of European descent, so the results may not apply to individuals from other racial or ethnic groups or socioeconomic groups. However, strengths include the use of data from a larger study with repeated measurements of health-related and behavioral risk factors to better capture long-term lifestyle habits and reduce measurement error and misclassification. helps. As such, the researchers say that their study “highlights a significant public health opportunity for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in this high-risk population.”

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